As St. Helena and Napa County both begin to cope with new pressures on local resources and increased demand for more accommodations, this page will have posts that are relevant to understanding the prevailing forces and how other communities have found solutions for similar issues.
Please forward your ideas, suggestions or best practices.
NEW: The Raymond Winery Hearing Map of Zinfandel Lane development, now and future potential.
The Doumani Hotel in St. Helena: TOT and the City.
The Yountville Hill Winery/Event Center graphic of building plans on the Hill.
The Butler Report: Below is a synopsis of a well known report on the evolution of tourism on destination locations. It was done in 1980 as the economy began to boom and the "boomers" began to travel. It is still relevant since it is not dependent on events as much as process and the life span of a trend.
Here is the full Report. Scroll down for more references.
SYNOPSIS: THE CONCEPT OF A TOURIST AREA CYCLE OF EVOLUTION:
IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES
University of Western Ontario
Report Introduction: “The concept of a recognizable cycle in the evolution of tourist areas is presented, using a basics curve to illustrate their waving and waning popularity. Speciﬁc stages in the evolutionary sequence are described, along with a range of possible future trends. The implications of using this model in the planning and management of tourist resources are discussed in the light of a continuing decline in the environmental quality and, hence, the attractiveness of many tourist areas.”
For a particular tourism area, you can collect data to locate its position in Butler's model of tourism development. Start by studying each of the stages below and then consider the types of data you might collect that are relevant to the Butler model.
Butler explains his concept of a tourism cycle of evolution:
"Visitors will come to an area in small numbers initially, restricted by lack of access, facilities, and local knowledge. As facilities are provided and awareness grows, visitor numbers will increase. With marketing, information dissemination, and further facility provision, the area’s popularity will grow rapidly. Eventually, however, the rate of increase in visitor numbers will decline as levels of carrying capacity are reached. These may be identiﬁed in terms of environmental factors (e.g. land scarcity, water quality, air quality), of physical plant (e.g. transportation, accommodation, other services), or of social factors (e.g. crowding, resentment by the local population). As the attractiveness of the area declines relative to other areas, because of overuse and the impacts of visitors, the actual number of visitors may also eventually decline."
Butler quotes the German Geographer, Walter Christaller.
"The typical course of development has the following pattern. Painters search out untouched and unusual places to paint. Step by step the place develops as a so-called artist colony. Soon a cluster of poets follows, kindred to the painters: then cinema people, gourmets, and the jeunesse dorée. The place becomes fashionable and the entrepreneur takes note. The ﬁsherman’s cottage, the shelter-huts become converted into boarding houses and hotels come on the scene. Meanwhile the painters have ﬂed and sought out another periphery - periphery as related to space, and metaphorically, as ‘forgotten’ places and landscapes. Only the painters with a commercial inclination who like to do well in business remain; they capitalize on the good name of this former painter’s corner and on the gullibility of tourists. More and more townsmen choose this place, now en vogue and advertised in the newspapers. Subsequently the gourmets, and all those who seek real recreation, stay away. At last the tourist agencies come with their package rate traveling parties; now, the indulged public avoids such places. At the same time, in other places the same cycle occurs again; more and more places come into fashion, change their type, turn into everybody’s tourist haunt." Christaller, 1963.
The Six Stages of Tourist Area Evolution
1: The Exploration Stage
• Small numbers of tourists
• Based on primary tourist attractions. These maybe natural or cultural.
• No secondary tourism attractions.
• Tourism has no economic or social signiﬁcance to local residents.
2: The Involvement Stage
• Local residents become involved in tourism
• Emergence of secondary tourism facilities such as guest houses.
• A tourism season may develop.
• Pressure develops for governments to improve transport for tourists.
3: The Development Stage
• High numbers of tourists that may exceed the local population during peak periods.
• Heavy advertising will create a well deﬁned tourist market.
• Local involvement and control of tourism declines rapidly.
• External organizations will provide secondary tourism attractions.
• Natural and cultural attractions will be developed and marketed.
Local people experience physical changes to the area that they may not approve of.
4: The Consolidation Stage
• Tourism growth slows but the numbers of tourists exceeds the local population.
• The area's economy is tied to tourism
• Marketing and advertising will be wide-reaching.
• Major franchises and tourism chains will be represented.
• Resort areas will have a well deﬁned recreational business district.
• Tourism arouses opposition and discontent from some local people.
5: The Stagnation Stage
• Visitor numbers have reached their peak.
• Carrying capacity has been reached or exceeded.
• Tourism causes environmental, social and economic problems.
• The resort becomes divorced from its geographic environment.
• Artiﬁcial tourism attractions now supersede the original primary attractions.
• Area has well-established image but will no longer be fashionable.
The Final Stage of the Butler Model
After reaching stagnation, Butler saw that rejuvenation or decline as possible alternatives. The last stage of his model offers ﬁve scenarios between complete rejuvenation and total decline:
A: Successful redevelopment leads to renewed growth.
B: Minor modiﬁcations to capacity levels lead to modest growth in tourism.
C: Tourism is stabilized by cutting capacity levels.
D: Continued overuse of resources and lack of investment leads to decline.
E: War, disease or other catastrophe causes an immediate collapse in tourism.
Stage 6: The Decline Scenario
• Unable to compete with newer tourism attractions
• Holiday makers replaced by weekend or day-trippers.
• Tourism facilities replaced by non-tourism activities.
• Hotels may become retirement homes or ﬂats for local residents.
• Ultimately, the area may become a tourism slum or drop out of the tourism market completely.
Stage 6. The Rejuvenation Scenario
• Requires a complete change in tourism attractions.
• Previously untapped tourism resources maybe found.
According to the 1980 Butler model, tourism areas leaving stage ﬁve, will either decline or rejuvenate - either way, the tourism area has evolved into the sixth stage of its development. It is misleading to identify a seventh stage in Butler's model.
"The Oversaturation Project. Travel Under Late Globalization" is an initiative of the Network Architecture Lab at Columbia’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation and Ralph Appelbaum Associates. This project sets out to document the condition of global oversaturation as it manifests itself in economic, social, and cultural terms. While this project focuses on their local markets, they do have an RSS feed of their blog as new research is developed.
Atlantic City Oversaturation of the Casino Market:
"The news is the latest in a cascade of setbacks for Atlantic City's gambling market, which until just a few years ago was the second-largest in the nation after Nevada; Pennsylvania has now taken over that spot. Analysts have long said that the casino market here, and in the Northeastern United States, has been oversaturated, and that some casinos need to close to ensure the survival of others.
On Jan. 1, Atlantic City had 12 casinos. By the end of September, it could have eight. The Atlantic Club closure cost 1,600 workers their jobs. An additional 2,100 at Showboat will be unemployed as of Aug. 31, in addition to the 1,009 Trump Plaza workers on the payroll. Revel has 3,100 workers who could lose their jobs if the 2-year-old casino resort is not sold." Full Article
Expert believes Phoenix hotel market is over saturated.
“The problem is that hotels don’t create their own demand." -- Heywood Sanders, a professor of public policy at the University of Texas-San Antonio. Full Article.
Book: Tourism and Politics: Policy, Power and Place, by Hall, C. M, 1994 pp. ix + 238 pp., ISBN: 0-471-94919-1, Abstract"
This book discusses the interrelationship between tourism and politics systematically at a number of levels, ranging from the international to the individual. Divided into eight chapters, the book examines: the politics of tourism; tourism, government and the state; international tourism policy and international relations; tourism and political stability; policy, dependency and tourism; tourism and the local state; tourism, culture and the presentation of social reality; and situating tourism in capitalist society. It highlights the contributions that some of the traditional concerns of political studies, such as ideology, institutional arrangements, interest groups, the appropriate role of government, and policy making process and power, can make to an understanding of contemporary issues in the study of tourism. In conclusion, the book has shown how tourism may serve to change power arrangements and values in destination areas and, in turn, how tourism patterns and processes are a response to different contested values and interests.
Negative Socio-Cultural Impacts From Tourism -- from: United Nations Environment Programme, environment for developmentChange or loss of indigenous identity and values. Tourism can cause change or loss of local identity and values, brought about by several closely related influences:
Tourism can turn local cultures into commodities when religious rituals, traditional ethnic rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to conform to tourist expectations, resulting in what has been called "reconstructed ethnicity." Once a destination is sold as a tourism product, and the tourism demand for souvenirs, arts, entertainment and other commodities begins to exert influence, basic changes in human values may occur. Sacred sites and objects may not be respected when they are perceived as goods to trade.
Destinations risk standardization in the process of satisfying tourists' desires for familiar facilities. While landscape, accommodation, food and drinks, etc., must meet the tourists' desire for the new and unfamiliar, they must at the same time not be too new or strange because few tourists are actually looking for completely new things. Tourists often look for recognizable facilities in an unfamiliar environment, like well-known fast-food restaurants and hotel chains.
Loss of authenticity and staged authenticity
Adapting cultural expressions and manifestations to the tastes of tourists or even performing shows as if they were "real life" constitutes "staged authenticity". As long as tourists just want a glimpse of the local atmosphere, a quick glance at local life, without any knowledge or even interest, staging will be inevitable.
Adaptation to tourist demands
Tourists want souvenirs, arts, crafts, and cultural manifestations, and in many tourist destinations, craftsmen have responded to the growing demand, and have made changes in design of their products to bring them more in line with the new customers' tastes. While the interest shown by tourists also contributes to the sense of self-worth of the artists, and helps conserve a cultural tradition, cultural erosion may occur due to the commodification of cultural goods.